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Who is Polluting?
谁在制造污染?

DOBBS
Tonight, we are following up on our report about our nation's national parks. Two weeks ago, we reported that, contrary to our expectations, the air in some of our national parks is anything but clean, clear or fresh, instead, filled with haze and smog caused, in large part, by old coal-fired power plants. In fact, the air quality in some of those parks is far worse than in most of this nation's major cities with the exception of Los Angeles. I asked CNN science correspondent Anne Kellan to find out why this problem persists and what those power plants are doing to help us all breathe easier. Anne joins us again tonight. Anne, what did you find out?
道比斯
今晚,我们继续对国家公园进行报道。两周前,我们曾经报道过,出乎我们意料的是,在一些国家公园里,空气并不干净、不清爽、也不新鲜,而是充满了烟雾--主要是由老式火力发电厂而起。实际上,有些公园的空气质量比美国大部分大城市的还要差许多,当然,洛杉矶除外。我请CNN的科技记者安娜·凯兰帮我们搞清楚为何这个问题依旧存在,而同时这些电厂又采取了那些措施来帮助我们呼吸顺畅些。安娜今晚又来到我们的节目。安娜,你有何发现?

ANNE KELLAN, CNN SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT
Well, Lou, following your suggestion, we talked to representatives of some of these plants to see why they just don't clean up emissions. Bottom line: they are making changes. It takes new technology, time, and a lot of money. For example, an industry spokesman told us just one scrubber to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions that creates acid rain can cause $100 million each to install. Machines to cut nitrogen oxide, the precursor to smog, costs $50- $60 million each to install. Plants near some of the parks have started installing this equipment because under federal law, both old and new plants have a deadline to clean up emissions even more.
安娜·凯兰,CNN科技记者
卢,按照你的建议,我们采访了一些发电厂的代表,想看看到底他们为什么不净化其排放物。事实是:他们正在改变这种状况。但转变需要新技术、时间和大量资金。例如,一位电业发言人告诉我们,仅安装一个降低二氧化硫排放量的涤气器就需要1亿美元,二氧化硫是制
造酸雨的元凶。安装一台降低氧化氮--烟雾元凶--排放量的机器设备就要5千万到6千万美元。因为根据联邦法律,新老厂子都有净化废气的截止日期。

ANNE KELLAN, CNN SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT
The industry expects a 40 percent reduction in haze and smog-related emissions by 2004. Now, the U.S., by the way, has 250 years of coal reserves left. According to Peabody Energy, the U.S. is called the Saudi Arabia of coal. So, the industry is spending millions now to find cleaner ways to use it. Coal use has tripled over the past 30 years and provides more than half of this country's electricity. Yet, as bleak a picture as the report paints, industry experts say while coal use is up, overall emissions from these plants have gone down.
安娜·凯兰,CNN科技记者
该行业预计,截至2004年与烟雾有关的废气排放将降低40%。顺便说一句,目前美国有250年的煤炭储备。据皮博迪能源机构称, 美国被称为煤矿储量的沙特阿拉伯。因此,该行业正花费数百万美元来探寻更清洁的煤炭使用方式。煤炭用量在过去30年中增加了两倍,火力发电提供了整个国家一半以上的电力。虽然报道描绘了一幅凄凉的画面,业内专家称在用煤量增加的同时,从发电厂排出的废气有所下降。

DAN REIDINGER, EDISON ELECTRIC INSTITUTE
What the report tries to give us is a snapshot of where things stand in our national parks and I think it's very important to put the issue in context, which is one of continuing improvement. The fact is that air quality has improved quite dramatically in the U.S. over about the last 30 years, since the Clean Air Act, the federal law, was enacted and we've had this improvement despite, at the same time, increased economic growth and energy use.
丹尼尔·瑞丁格尔,爱迪生电力研究中心
这些报道展示给我们的只是一幅国家公园的快照,而我认为应该前后联系地看待这件事,它是在不断改善的。自从联邦《大气污染防止法》实行以来,在过去30年中美国的空气质量有了显著的改善,虽然在此期间经济增长、能源消耗增加,但是我们还是取得了进步。

KELLAN
Now, with the Enron scandal and today's rocky economy, power companies are under pressure,
not only to clean up emissions, but to keep costs down. A plant that spends millions to / on clean air equipment usually pass those costs to customers in higher electric bills. In regulated area, power companies have to get permission before installing equipment and raising rates. So you can see it's a balancing act between spending and rate hikes. How much is it all worth? Industry spokesmen say often, the more efficient and clean burning a plant is, the less money it costs to operate. So company owners and stock holders would be well served with cleaner plants.
凯兰
目前由于安然丑闻和经济困难,电力公司承受着巨大压力,不仅要净化废气排放,还要降低成本。花费了数百万美元用在空气净化设备上的电厂通常会提高电价,把这些成本转加在消费者头上。在制度严格的地区,电力公司在安装设备和涨价之前都要获得允许。因此,你可以看到在开销和涨价之间是一个平衡关系。它是不是值得呢?值多少呢?行业发言人经常称,一个发电厂越有效率、燃煤越清洁,其运作的成本就越低。因此公司所有者和持股者将会因为更清洁的电厂而获益。

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