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Two Ozone Holes
两个臭氧空洞

JAMES HATTORI, HOST
This week at the Chabot Space Science Center in Oakland, California, where on a clear night you can scan the heavens on this 20-inch, 1915 vintage refractor telescope. One thing you can't ever see is the invisible protective ozone layer around the Earth. If you could, you might notice something strange happening. Every year at this time at the end of the Antarctic winter the ozone layer thins over the South Pole, letting more of the sun's damaging ultraviolet rays reach the ground. And this year, as Ann Kellan reports, the ozone hole, as researchers' seeing, doubled.
詹姆斯·哈托利,主播
本周在加州奥克兰的Chabot宇宙和科技中心,你可以在晴朗的夜晚通过这个20英尺的1915年制造的折射望远镜来观看夜空。有一个东西你是无法看到的,那就是地球周围的臭氧保护层。假设你能看到它,你也许会注意有件奇怪的事情发生。每年在这个时候,即南极地带冬季行将结束时,南极的臭氧层会变薄,致使更多的有害紫外线抵达地面。根据安娜·凯兰报道,今年研究者发现臭氧空洞已经变成了两个。

ANN KELLAN, CNN SCIENCE CORRESPONDENT
This year's ozone hole, in dark blue, is unlike any seen before. There are two holes instead of one.
安娜·凯兰,CNN特派记者
今年这个深蓝色的臭氧空洞和我们以往看到的都不同。今年有两个空洞,而不是一个。

PAUL NEWMAN, NASA ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICIST
In all the years of meteorological observation that we have, we've never seen anything like this.
保罗·纽曼,美国航空航天局大气物理学家
在我们观测大气的这些年里,我们从未见过这种现象。

KELLAN
Every August for the past 20 years or so, the ozone layer over the South Pole, that shields us from the sun's ultraviolet or UV rays has been thinning out, creating a so-called hole. This year, because of a very forceful weather system in the upper atmosphere of the South Pole, it split the hole there in two. And because that system was warmer than usual, comparatively speaking, those holes weren't that big.
凯兰
近20年来每逢8月,南极上空保护人们不受太阳紫外线伤害的臭氧层就开始变薄,产生一个"空洞"。今年,因为南极大气层上方的强劲天气变化,这个洞变成两个。但因为天气比较暖和,相对来说,这些空洞还不算大。

NEWMAN
It's good news for the environment. The ozone hole is very small this year.
纽曼
这对于环境来说是条大好新闻。今年臭氧空洞非常小。

KELLAN
Even though it is split in two, the ozone hole hasn't been this small since 1988, about 6 million square miles, 4 million less than last year's hole, which was about the size of North America. The smaller hole means fewer damaging UV rays reach us. Good for sun worshipers, but keep sunscreen on.
凯兰
虽然臭氧空洞一分为二,但是自1998年以来,空洞还没有像现在这么小过,大约600万平方英里,比去年的空洞小400万平方英里,大约有北美洲那么大。臭氧空洞变小意味着照到我们身上的有害的紫外线有所减少。这对太阳崇拜者来说是好事,但防晒霜还是要抹的。

NEWMAN
That's good news, because ozone screens ultraviolet radiation. And ultraviolet radiation can affect plankton, it can cause skin cancer in humans, cataracts, and other harmful health effects.
纽曼
这是一则好新闻,意味着臭氧过滤了紫外线辐射。紫外线辐射会产生大量浮游生物,会使人们得皮肤癌、白内障和其他一些伤害。

KELLAN
Even though one of the ozone holes this year is close to South America...
凯兰
虽然今年有一个臭氧空洞在南美洲附近……

NEWMAN
They should be a little bit concerned, but not a lot.
纽曼
他们应该稍加注意,但不必过分担心。

KELLAN
As satellite and ground based instruments continue to monitor ozone levels NASA's Paul Newman expects the hole, like it has every year, will close up over South America before the sun's damaging rays are at an angle to penetrate through the atmosphere to Earth. And don't expect the ozone hole to shrink every year. Scientists think this year's smaller hole is more a fluke.
凯兰
卫星和地面设备不断监视臭氧水平,航空航天局的保罗·纽曼认为,在太阳的有害光线能以一定角度穿过地球大气层之前,空洞将会像往年一样在南美洲上空消失。别指望臭氧空洞每年都会缩减。科学家认为今年空洞减小只是侥幸。

NEWMAN
One year doesn't really make a trend.
纽曼
仅仅一年并不真正决定整个走势。

KELLAN
The ozone layer has yet to reap the benefits of a global treaty signed in the 1980s that took most ozone destroying chemicals off the market. Like chlorofluorocarbons once used in aerosol cans, as coolants in air conditioners, and halon that puts fires out fast. Now, both are off the market. Scientists say these chemicals have a long life and will continue destroying ozone for at least the next five years. After that, NASA expects a slow restoration. Instead of getting larger every year like it did in the 80s and 90s, leveling off around 2000, the ozone hole could get smaller, even disappear by 2050.
凯兰
20世纪80年代签订的全球协议尚未对臭氧层起作用,它阻止大部分破坏臭氧层最严重的化学物质流入市场。比如曾经用于喷雾罐的含氯氟烃化合物,空调内的冷冻剂,用于快速灭火的碳卤化合物等。目前,这些都在市场上消失了。科学家称,这些化合物的寿命很长,至少在今后5年,它们还会继续破坏臭氧层。此后,航空航天局预计臭氧层开始缓慢恢复。臭氧层空洞在80年代和90年代每年都有所增加,但在2000年趋于稳定,到2050年,它有可能逐渐变小,直至消失。

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