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The Stress Effect
你有抑郁症吗

RHONDA ROWLAND, CNN MEDICAL CORRESPONDENT
Heavy traffic, job pressure, working couples with kids, cell phones, e- mails, pagers and Palm Pilots. Do you wonder what all that stress is doing to you?
罗纳·罗兰德,CNN医药记者
拥堵的交通、工作的压力、家有孩子的上班族夫妇、手机、电子邮件、呼机和掌中宝。你可曾想过这些压力会给你造成什么影响吗?

DR. JEFFREY KELSEY, PSYCHIATRIST
I have to take this real quick.
杰弗里·凯尔塞医生,精神病学家
我得赶快处理这件事。

ROWLAND
OK.
罗兰德
好的。

KELSEY
I have five more minutes of being on call today.
凯尔塞
因为今天我还有5分钟就下班了。

ROWLAND
Psychiatrist, Dr. Jeffery Kelsey, sees it every day in his practice. Stress can set the stage for depression.
罗兰德
杰弗里·凯尔塞医生是一位精神病学家,这就是他每天都会面对的情况。压力能够导致抑郁。

KELSEY
Well, we think that the vulnerability of getting depression is about a third from genetics, what we inherit, and is about two thirds from those experiences that we have.
凯尔塞
好的,我们认为忧郁症三分之一来自遗传,是我们继承下来的,另外三分之二是由我们的经历引发的。

ROWLAND
Stress you can't control appears to do the most harm, accidents, death, job loss, the events of 9/11, even the turbulence of Wall Street. With Wall Street, a lot of pressure now, especially for CEOs' performance and to deliver. What kind of impact does that have?
罗兰德
那些无法控制的因素带来的压力危害性最大,如意外事故、死亡、失业、"911"事件,甚至华尔街的动荡。现在,华尔街的人们承受着许多压力,尤其是CEO的表现和决策。这些压力会产生什么影响呢?

KELSEY
There are clearly going to be some people for whom that stress is going to hit the threshold. well, yes, they are going get an episode of depression.
凯尔塞
很明显,他们中的一些人开始受到压力的影响。是的,他们将患上阶段性抑郁症。

DR. J. DOUGLAS BREMMER,
AUTHOR, "DOES DEPRESSION DAMAGE THE BRAIN

"This is a patient with depression.
道格拉斯·伯瑞默医生,《抑郁会损害大脑吗?》一书的作者
这是位抑郁症患者。

ROWLAND
Dr. J. Douglas Bremmer studies the brain. He says you can actually see how stress assaults us, targeting and shrinking the brain's hippocampus, where we do most of our thinking. So is it the disease that does this or is it like the stressors that happen over time that causes this area
to get smaller?
罗兰德
道格拉斯·伯瑞默医生研究大脑。他说,事实上,你可以了解压力是如何侵害我们的,它是如何攻击大脑侧面的海马状突起,使它收缩。那里是我们主要的记忆思考区。那么,是疾病使得这一区域变小呢,还是长时间的紧张性刺激所致?

BREMMER
We don't know. It could be stress causes changes in the brain that lead to depression.
伯瑞默
我们不很清楚。可能是压力引起大脑的变化,导致抑郁。

ROWLAND
And Bremmer also found that depression is cumulative. The more bouts you have, the more damage to your brain, and it accelerates. The more times you suffer depression without treatment, the more likely you are to suffer again.
罗兰德
另外,伯瑞默也发现抑郁具有累积性。你经历的次数越多,就会对大脑造成更多的损害,抑郁症就会加剧。抑郁症患者未予治疗的次数越多,就越有可能再次受到它的困扰。

BREMMER
We know that stressful life events make it more likely that someone who has had depression in the past will relapse.
伯瑞默
我们知道,有压力的生活更容易使曾患抑郁症的人旧病复发。

ROWLAND
Also startling, it's striking at a younger age. The typical victim used to be middle aged. Now, it's common to see depression in the late teens or early twenties. So what do you look for? We all feel blue at times, but if you feel that way all day for two weeks, look for at least five of these symptoms: changes in appetite and weight, sleeping too little or too much, a lack of enthusiasm, not feeling pleasure from your usual activities, restlessness or irritability, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating or making decisions, thoughts of death or suicide.
罗兰德
更令人惊讶的是,抑郁症患者人群日趋年轻化。通常是中年人患抑郁症。现在,近二十或二十出头的人患抑郁症的也很普遍。那么,我们怎么知道自己得了抑郁症呢?有时,我们会感到心情沮丧,但是如果你连续两个星期整日情绪低沉,就要看看是否具有下列至少五种症状:胃口和体重发生变化;睡的太少或太多;缺乏热情;从日常活动中感觉不到快乐;烦躁不安或易怒;感觉无价值或内疚;很难思维、集中精力或做决定;有寻死或自杀的想法。

KELSEY
And probably the key is, if you are watching this and wondering. hmm, I wonder if I have depression, the best thing to do is to go and see someone to get that evaluated.
凯尔塞
也许问题的关键是,如果你正在观看本节目并产生疑惑。哼,我想如果我患有抑郁症,最明智的做法就是看医生,诊断抑郁的程度。

ROWLAND
Remember, depression is one third genetic. Some people are immune to stress. Also, say doctors, almost everyone who is depressed can be helped and return to a normal life.
罗兰德
记住,抑郁症三分之一是通过遗传得来的。一些人天生就感受不到压力。医生们也说,几乎每一个抑郁症患者都能在帮助下重新过上正常的生活。

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