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更新时间:2004/10/25

26. 增加 27. 笑 28. 疯 29.味道 30. 滑 31. 怕 32. 闪光 33. 大 34. 感情 35. 工作,职业 36. 停止 37. 旅行 38. 抓,握 39. 看,凝视 40. 静 41. 消灭 42. 结果 43. 表明,代表 44. 帮助 45. 获得,得到 46. 礼品,礼物 47. 愚蠢 48. 地区 49. 会议,集会 50. 成就,功绩

26.增加

 increase: To make or become larger in amount or number.

 it refers to quantity or intensity as well as size.

 The population of this county has increased.

 add: To put together with something else so as to increase the

 number size, importance.

 He added some wood to increase the fire.

 (扩大) enlarge: To grown larger or wider.

 I want to enlarge this photograph/house.

 (放大) magnify: To make something appear larger than in reality, esp. by means of a lens.

 You have magnified the peril.

 (扩充) amplify: To make large or fuller, esp. give fuller information, more details etc.

 to amplify a radio signal/sound.

 augment: (fml) To become larger or greater.

 It emphasizes the action of addition.

 He augmented his income by writing some short stories.

 (扩展 扩张) expand: To increase in range scope or volume as well as in size. Iron expands when it is heated.

 (加长) extend: To make longer in space or time, to extend a railway.

 Can't you extend your visit for a few days.

 27.笑

 (微笑)

 smile: The corners of your mouth move outwards and slightly upwards.

 He smiles his consent./with satisfaction.

 (大笑) laugh: To make a noise to show one's amusement and

 happiness. You can laugh at a joke or at an amusing sight. You can laugh at someone without being amused.

 They all laughed loudly.

 (露齿而笑) grin: To smile with the teeth.

 The boy grinned from ear to ear when I gave him a

 sweet.

 (暗笑 含笑) chuckle: To laugh quietly.

 I could hear him chuckling to himself as he read

 that funny article.

 (咯咯笑) giggle: To laugh repeatedly foolishly and uncontrollably,  esp. by girls.

 I heard them giggle when I passed by the girls.

 (窃笑 暗笑) snicker: To laugh in a disrespectful more or less secret way.

 On hearing his absurd opinion, I went snickering.

 (假笑 痴笑) simper: To smile in a silly unnatural way.

 When I told him the thing, he simply simpered.

 (得意的笑) smirk: To smile in a false or too satisfied way.

 He smirked at everyone that passed.

 (窃笑) titter: To laugh very quietly from nervousness or badly

 controlled amusement.

 The girls tittered when they heard this.

 (狂笑) guffaw: To laugh loudly and rudely.

 All the people guffawed at his silly words.

 (哄笑) roar: To laugh long and loudly.

 They roared after they heard the joke.

 (欢笑) chortle: To give a laugh of pleasure or satisfaction.

 He chortled with delight when I told him the news.

 (笑骂) taunt: To try to make sb angry, or upset by making unkind

 remarks, laughing at faults or failures.

 They taunted her with her inability to swim.

 (嘲笑 嘲弄) ridicule: To laugh unkindly at or to make unkind fun of.

 They all ridiculed the idea.

 (讥笑) deride: To laugh at or make fun of as of no value. /to mock

 at someone with contempt They all derided his foolishness.

 (嘲弄) mock: To laugh at sb(sth) when it is wrong to do so, esp.

 by copying in a funny or contemptuous way.

 The students mocked the seriousness of his expression.

  twit: (infl) To make fun of sb because of behavior, a mistake, a fault, etc.

 He twitted her with her timidity.

(嘲笑 轻蔑地笑) scoff: To laugh at, to speak or act disrespectfully. /to

speak in scornful mocking way.

It was a great invention but at first many people scoffed at it.

(戏弄)

chaff: (infl) To make fun of sb in a good-humored way.

He chaffed the man about his mistakes in speaking English.

(讥笑) jeer: To laugh rudely at /to insult sb in a loud, unpleasant way.

They always jeer at the priests.

gibe(jibe): To laugh at with the intention of hurting the feeling with sarcastic remarks.

Don't gibe at her behavior until you know the reason for it.

(讥笑 冷笑) sneer: To express proud dislike by a kind of usu, one- side

smile or to show scorn or contempt by looks.

She sneered at the furniture in his neighbor's home.

joke: To make fun of.

You mustn't joke with him about religion.

(取笑) jest: To act or speak playful, not seriously.

Don't jest about serious things.

(戏弄) banter: To speak, or act playfully or jokingly.

We bantered him on the subject of marriage.

(轻视) scorn: To look down upon.

28.疯

mad: Showing that one has amanita illness which often  causes them to behave in strange way.

crazy: (infl) Very strange or foolish.

psychotic: The most precise one. used by psychiatrists.

insane Not sound in mind. used in scientific articles.

lunatic: (old derog) wildly foolish.

demented It indicates sb's mentality has degenerated from a precious level.

maniac: (n) A mad person who is violent and dangerous.

 29.味道

smell: The most general one.

It refers to something pleasant or unpleasant.

odo(u)r: (fml) More used in scientific articles.

fragrance: A sweet or pleasant smell.

It refers to flowers and stresses a delicate smell from plants.

Those roses have a delightful fragrance.

scent: A smell esp. left by an animals, an pleasant smell.

Our dog lost the fox's scent.

perfume: A sweet or pleasant smell.

It refers to either natural smell or a man-made smell  and stresses a strong and rich smell compared  with fragrance

aroma: A strong usu pleasant smell, often a spicy smell.

flavor: The particular quality of tasting good or pleasantly strong. The bread hasn't much flavor.

savor: The smell of food by the processes of cooking.

The meat had cooked too long and lost its savor.

stink: A strong unpleasant smell. the stink of sweaty feet.

stench: A very strong unpleasant smell.

30.怕

fear: The feeling that one has when danger is near.

(可怕) dread: A great fear esp. of some harm to come.

It suggests fear of facing whatever is coming. Usually dread also means loss of courage.

Illness is the great dread of his life.

(畏惧) fright: The feeling or experience of fear. sudden great fear.

I nearly died of fright at the sight of escaped lion.

(恐慌) alarm: Sudden fear and anxiety as caused by the possibility of

danger and excitement caused by fear of danger.

The news caused great alarm.

(恐惧) terror: Extreme and intense fear.

The people ran from the enemy in terror.

(恐怖 战栗) horror: A feeling of great shock, fear and dislike.

I cried out in horror as I saw the man killed.

(惊恐万状) panic: Sudden uncontrollable quickly-spreading fear or terror, which results in unreasonable and frantic activity.

When I realized the situation I got into a panic.

(敬畏) awe: A feeling respect mixed with fear and wonder.

He always stands in awe of his father.

31.闪光

shine: The most general one.

(闪耀) glitter: To shine brightly with flashing points of light.

All that glitters is not gold.

(发火花) sparkle: To shine in small flashes.

It suggests uneven, bright flashes reflected from light-catching objects.

We can see a diamond sparkling in the sunlight.

(闪光) flash: To give out a sudden and monetary bright ray of light/

To shine suddenly for a moment.

(闪耀) glisten: To shine from or as if from a wet surface.

His hair glistened with oil. The wet road glistened.

(闪烁) gleam: To send out a bright light moderately, mildly not violently.

A cat's eye gleamed in the dark. The lantern gleamed.

(冒火花) spark: To send out small bits of fire.

He was so angry that his eyes sparked furiously.

(闪烁不定) flicker: To burn unsteadily, shine with an unsteady light.

The candle flickered and then went out.

glimmer: To give a very faint, unsteady light.

The lights glimmered in the distance.

(闪烁) twinkle: To shine with a unsteady light that rapidly changes from fright to faint.

The stars are twinkling in the sky in the evening.

glow: To give out heat and/or light without flames or smoke.

The iron bar was heated until it glowed.

(闪烁) glint: To give out small flashes of light, as the eyes of an eager person are supposed to do

The sun glinted through the leaves after the shower.

(眩光) glare: To shine with a strong light in a way unpleasant to the eyes.

The lights of the car glared at me.

flame: To burn brightly.

You can see the burning log flaming.

(冒火苗) blaze: To burn with a bright flame.

the house is blazing.

(闪闪燃烧) flare: To burn with a bright flame, but uncertainly or for a  short time.

The candles flared in the wind.

dazzle: To make unable to see because of a sudden very strong light.

The headlight dazzles.

coruscate: (fml) to flash, sparkle.

The sparks coruscated.

scintillate:

The gems scintillate.

 32.大

big: Large in size, extent or important.

large: Much bigger than average

great: Very large, important, and good.

great change / great writer / great idea.

huge: Very fig in size, amount and degree.

It stresses volume.(体积)

a huge house/ make a huge profit.

vast: Very large and wide, great in size or amount.

It stresses area.(体积)two dimensional extensions

It is a vast expanse of desert.

vast plains/ vast majority / at vast expanse.

immense: Very great in size or degree./very large or huge.

It stresses three dimensional largesse.

It implies immeasurableness.

an immense palace/ immense importance

The government will build an immense stadium.

enormous: Extremely large./very large in size, amount or degree.

It stresses not only size but degree.

It implies abnormality.

He earned enormous sums of money

an enormous animal/ enormous appetite/ enormous amount

tremendous: Extraordinarily large in size, amount or degree. / large or impressive

It implies astonishment, terror.

tremendous speed / tremendous noise/ tremendous amount /tremendous feeling.

gigantic: Immense in size, on a very large scale like a giant.

titanic: Very big or important.

It refers back to the Titans, a race of giant in Greek mythology. It stresses force and power.

 We've made titanic effort to achieve our purpose.

colossal: Very large indeed.

It comes from Colossus of Rhodes a huge statue that is

one of the wonders of the ancient world.

It implies incredibility.

 33.感情

feeling(s): It can refer to mind or body. It's either pleasant or painful.

(感觉) sensation: (u c n) A direct feeling coming from the senses and conveyed to the nervous system by the organs of seeing,  hearing, touching, tasting or smelling. Sugar gives a sensation of sweetness.

(激情) emotion: (c n) Any of the strong feelings of the human spirit Love, joy, anger, hatred and grief are emotions.

His speech had an effect on our emotions rather than our reason.

(强烈的激情) passion: Strong emotions, strong, deep often uncontrollable

feeling, esp. of sexual love, hatred or anger.

The poet expressed his burning passion for the woman he loved.

(情操 情趣) sentiment: (u c n) A tender or fine feeling as of pity, love,  sadness or imaginative remembrance of the past.

 It's not a beautiful watch, but I wear it for sentiment  because it is my father's. Admiration, patriotism and loyalty are sentiments.

34.工作 职业

 work: (u n) A very general one.

 job: (c n) Any sort of gainful regular employment whether

 permanent or temporary.

 He had a good jog in a bank.

 profession: It suggests a position that can't be gained without a  considerable amount of higher education.

 It implies intellectual work, scholarship and mainly refers to three learned professions-law, medicine and  theology.

 What do you think of the profession to be a teacher?

 occupation: What he is engaged in, either continuously or temporarily, for any purpose, whether of profit of amusement, learning.

 Can you find occupation suitable for his abilities.

 employment: (u n) What one is doing, work done in service of another in order to make a living or get pay./temporary business,

 The government gives some money to the worker out of  employment.

 vocation: (c n) A job which one does because one thinks one has a special fitness or ability or sense of duty.

 It suggests the people do it in order to help others not for the earning of a livelihood. teaching and nursing. Teaching children ought or be a vocation as well as a way of earning money.

 position: (fml) A job, post, usually involving professions managerial or clerical work, not manual.

 She got a position as a governess.

 He lost his position as steward.

 35.停止

 stop: The most general one.

 pause: To stop for a short time.

 He paused to pick up a stone.

 cease: To stop moving or acting.

 It implies a total extinction.

 They ceased (from) quarrelling. to cease fire.

 quit: To stop doing something and leave.

 It implies the meaning of "voluntarily and completely."

 He quitted his school/job.

 halt: To cause to stop.

 It refers to the abrupt, decisive termination of movement.

 It implies the meaning of "by authority or force."

 The soldiers halted for a rest.

 knock off: (infm)To stop

 terminate: To come to an end.

 The two countries terminated their relations.

36.持久

 durable: Long-lasting

 It refers to the power to resist change, delay and wear.

 we must make a durable peace.

 (ever)-lasting: Continuing for a long time/unending.

 It refers to something that may end sooner or later. a lasting sorrow/ a ever-lasting friendship.

 perpetual: (strongest one) Lasting for ever or a long time.

 /uninterrupted happening often. It refers chiefly to an activity that is not susceptible to interruption.

 I'm tired of your perpetual complainants/chatters.

 permanent: Lasting for ever.

 The permanent of the treaty is in doubt.

 enduring: Lasting and continuing to exist.

 It implies great resistance to both time and change.

37.旅行

 journey: The most general one.

 it is now usually used of travel by sand and often

 suggests the covering of considerable time or distance,  and a direct going from a starting point to a destination, with no necessary implication of a return.

 travel: A passing from place to place, not necessarily in a direct line or with fixed destination.

 trip: (infm) It suggests the covering of shorter time or distance and a direct journey and implies an final return to the starting point.

 tour: A journey that returns to the starting point, and many places are visited generally over a considerable distance often by means of a circuitous route. for instance for sightseeing, inspection, honey moon,  business.

 excursion: It emphasizes a temporary departure from a given place  and specifies a return to it. It can point to a sea or land tour or to a short outing a short journey made  for pleasure usu by several people together.

 voyage: A long journey on a ship or in a spacecraft.

38.抓,握

 grasp: To take hold of something firmly usu using the whole hand. Grasp all and lose all.

 He grasped her by the hand.

 clasp: To hold something firmly and tightly with one's arms or hand round.

 The child clasped his doll protectively.

 clutch: To grasp something quickly and greedily.

 It suggests eagerness or an anxiety in seizing or grasping and may implies less success in holding.

 The mother clutched her baby in his arms.

 seize: To take hold of suddenly with force. The animal seized its prey.

 to seize sb by the hand/to seize something from sb.

 snatch: To grasp something quickly and suddenly sometimes secretly

 It suggests more suddenness or quickness but less force than seize.

 The thief snatched her purse and ran away.

 grab: (infml) It implies more roughness and rudeness than snatch. She grabbed his arms and pulled him out of the room.  

 grip: To take a very tight hold of something esp. with your  fingers or with a tool.

 He gripped the nail and pulled it out.

39.看 凝视

 see: To experience with the eyes and it does not depend on what you want to do.

 look at: To use your eyes on purpose and with attention.

 watch: to look for some time at something that may move.

 gaze: To look long and steadily, often with the implication of

 wonder, admiration.

 stare: To gaze intently esp. with wide-open eyes as in amusement,

 admiration, wonder, deep thought, anger or fear.

 glance: To look at something quickly and briefly.

 glimpse: To see by chance, just for a moment.

 glare: To stare angrily, fiercely.

 It emphasizes hospitality or fear.

 peep: To look quickly and secretly or from a hiding place.

 peer: To look sharply and curiously with a narrowing of the eyes 

 often a movement of the head forward.

 gape: To look hard in surprise, esp. with the mouth open.

40.静

 quiet: Without any sound. A quiet person is not noisy or loud. A quiet street may have little or no traffic on it.

 still: Without any movement.

 An engine is still if it is not running.

 silent: Without any words.

 calm: Peaceful. A calm person is relaxed. He doesn't get excited easily.

 peaceful: (something) Gentle and restful and calm.

 It is very peaceful in the country.

 41.消灭

 destroy: To damage it so much that it is completely ruined.

 The enemy soldiers destroyed everything in sight when they captured the village.

 damage: To hurt or lower the value of something.

 The car was damaged in the accident.

 ruin: To destroy gradually, little by little. An object that has been ruined has lost all its value or usefulness, which can't be repaired or fixed.

 Moths ruined good woolen clothes by eating holes in them.

 spoil: To ruin something so it can't be used.

 Milk will spoil if it is not kept cold.

 demolish: To destroy big or substantial things such as buildings

 Many buildings had to be demolished before the new highway could be built.

 exterminate: To destroy in a big way or in large amount.

 wreck: To break it, destroy it, or spoil it completely.

 It usually refers to vessels or vehicles.

 42.结果

 result: The most general one.

 What happens because of something else.

 It indicates a strict causal link between the two events.

 The word may often suggest an earlier action

 deliberately taken to gain a particular goal. It suggests a unique or unpredictable one-time action.

 consequence: (fml) Something that follows from an action or condition.

 More often the word suggests a negative result or at least the negative concomitant (相伴的) of an otherwise desirable effect.

 Cancer is a consequence of smoking.

 effect: A special or particular result.

 It gives a more objective almost scientific tone and emphasizes a principle that underlies a chain of events.

 Did the medical have a good effect.

 43.表明 代表

 mean: The most general one

 show: To show that something exists or is true means to prove it. It refers to the agreed- upon ideas or thing that words or signs stand for.

 suggest: To cause to come to mind.

 It by contrast concentrates specifically on covert or

 implicit qualities or association in signs or language.

 It stresses tentative alternatives in meaning.

 He claims to mean one thing, but his choice of words suggests quite another.

 The sight of birds suggested a new idea for flying machine.

 indicate: To make a sign for/clear.

 It stresses a rough approximation of literal meaning.

 A high fever indicates severe illness.

 His answer indicated that I could leave.

 imply: To express indirectly.

 It stresses subtlety or complexity of association.

 His manner implies that he would like cone with us.

 Do you realize what his words imply?

 denote: To be a mark of.

 It specially refers to what a term strictly or literally means.

 The sign x denotes an unknown number.

 A smile often denotes pleasure.

 The sign "=" denotes that two things are equal.

 connote: (more formal and technical) It refers to all the possible associations that are implied or suggested by a term. Connote is closer in meaning to imply than suggest. signify: To be a sign of.

 It suggests a simple literal meaning and stresses any aspect of conveyed understandings. Sometimes the word is used especially to refer to the deepest import of an expression than to more obvious or superficial aspects

 He signified his agreement by nodding.

 A fever usually signifies a disorder of the body.

 symbolize: To represent by one or more symbols.

 It suggests a rich cluster of abstract concepts that are invested in a word, gesture or object and stresses a deliberate compression of complex idea into a concrete token that stands for them.

 The dove symbolizes peace.

 The sign "+" symbolizes addition in arithmetic.

 44.帮助

 help: The general one. to supply whatever someone needs or do whatever might be useful to him.

 assist: To co-operate with sb not taking an important part.

 He assisted the doctor in the operation.

 aid: (not followed infinitive) To help sb who is weak or is in  

 trouble who wanted very much by adding your work to his in order to do something.

 The Red Cross often aids flood victims.

45.获得,得到

 get: The most general one.

 obtain: (fml)It stresses the seeking out of something.

 gain: to get gradually.

 It indicates greater effort in the seeking process, forceful  

 seizure.

 He gained the prize because of his good work.

 acquire: To get for oneself by one's own work, skill action piece by  piece little by little.

 He acquired good knowledge of English by hard work.

 attain: To manage to achieve, to succeed in arriving at.

 He attained the position of minister.

 procure: It implies maneuvering to process something and suggests involved,

 contrived or even shady (unjust) dealings.

46.礼品,礼物

 present: It shows a friendly and respectful attitude usu substantial things.

 gift: It shows something which is given voluntarily given without

 expectation of return or compensation.

47.愚蠢

 silly: Foolish or childish

 a silly boy/story/fellow/question/mistake, silly remarks.

 foolish: Very silly or unwise

 a foolish act/child/old man, foolish people.

 stupid: Showing lack of good judgment or intelligence and not at all

 sensible.

 a stupid idea/mistake/person/act.

48.地区,地域

 zone: A particular part of something or a particular place.

 area: A small or large part not thought of a fixed land division.

 A playground is an outside area.

 region: Usually part of a country usually large may or may not

 be thought of as fixed land division.

 A desert is a barren region.

 district: A fixed land division usually smaller than region.

 We live in Hongkou District of Shanghai.

49.会议 集会

 meeting: The most general one. any gathering of several or many people in one place at a certain time. A meeting can be large or small, long or shirt. It is usually planned ahead of time.

 (年会) convention: An annual meeting of an organization or political group.

 (讨论会) conference: A meeting at which two or more people have an formal discussion and exchange views on a subject.

 (代表大会) congress: A formal meeting of representatives of societies or  countries to exchange information and opinion.

 (集会) assembly: A group of people who have gathered together for a  meeting for the purpose of being informed, being entertained or making group decisions.

 (协商会) council: A meeting of a small group of people chosen from a large group to serve as advisers or consultants.

 50.成就,功绩

 achievement: Something which one succeed in doing esp. after a lot of effort usually dangerous or difficult.

 The first space flight was a great achievement.

 accomplishment: The skill that people have required. It is something that took knowledge and, usually, hard work. When you have solved a hard arithmetic problem or learned to figure out, you can be proud of your accomplishment.

 Among his many accomplishments is the ability to play card tricks.

 feat: It requires more courage and strength. It applies to mental acts as well physical acts.

 Learning a new skill is a feat.

 exploit: An accomplishment that requires even greater daring and heroism than a feat.

 Old stories tell about the exploits of famous heroes.