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更新时间:2004/11/1

一般将来时也译为单纯将来时。

 

例A:I shall not come if it rains tomorrow.

(如明天下雨我就不来。)

例B:My brother will leave for the United States next week.

(我的哥哥下星期要到美国去。)

 

解说 从句式我们可以了解一般将来时的表达须借助于助动词“shall/will”。关于“shall/will”的用法,传统文法谈得很多,同时各文法学家的理论也不很一致。更重要的是英国人和美国人对“shall/will”的用法规则并不很一致,也不很严谨,所以本书拟只提供下面的五个规则,相信各位只要把下面这五个规则学通了,你的“shall/will”的用法就可以中规中矩了。

①说或写都尽量使用“I'll, You'll, He'll , She'll , It'll, We'll , They'll …”的简缩形(如用法例2、3)。

②要表达主语的“意志”,通常都用“will”(文法上称为意志将来。)

例A:I won't see him again.

(我不愿意再和他见面。)

例B:Who will go and help that poor old man?

(谁愿意去帮助那个可怜的老人?)

Mary will . (玛莉愿意。)

③说话者要把自己的“意志”表达或行使出去,通常用“shall”。

例A:You shall not do that again.

(你不可以再做那样的事。)

例B:He shall return that book tomorrow.

(明天他必须把那本书归还。)

④第一人称问句使用“shall”。

例A:Shall I call you a taxi ?

(需要我替你叫一辆出租车吗?)

例B:Shall we tell her the truth ?

(我们可以把实情告诉她吗?)

⑤问句是“Shall…?”,答句就用“shall ~”;问句用“Will …?”,答句就用“will ~ ”。

例A:Shall you go to school tomorrow ?

(你明天须要上学去吗?)

Yes, I shall . We'll have an exam .

(是的,我必须去。我们明天有考试。)

例B:Will you go to school with me tomorrow?

(明天你要不要和我一道去学校?)

No, I won't . I'm going on a picnic.

(我不要。我已定好要去郊游。)

注:Let's …”的附加疑问通常使用“…, shall we ?”。

Let's have a rest, shall we?

(我们休息一下,怎样?)

一般将来时除了使用“shall/will + V…”以外,也可以使用下列的几种句式来表达。

1.be going to + V … (即将会……;打算将……)

例A:It is going to rain. Take an umbrella with you.

(带一把伞去。看样子就要下雨了。)

例B:The Browns are going to move to Australia.

(布朗先生全家打算迁移到澳大利亚去。)

2.be about to + V (即将……,指紧接着要发生的动作。)

例:Let's wait a minute. He is about to arrive.

(我们等一下。他即将会到达。)

3.be + V-ing …(定于……,指接近的将来动作。)

例:He is leaving for Hong Kong tomorrow morning.

(他定于明天早晨到香港去。)

4.be + to V (定于……,指预定的将来动作。)

例:She is to be here at 9:00 a.m. tomorrow.

(她定于明晨九时到达这里。)

5.V-(e)s (定于……,指接近的将来动作,但不如第3项主观。)

例:He leaves for Hong Kong tomorrow morning.

(他定于明天早晨到香港去。——与(3)项的区别在于(3)项的动作是出自主语的决定,(5)项则不一定是出自主语的决定。)

常用于修饰一般将来时的时间副词有:tomorrow, tomorrow morning (afternoon, evening), next + 时间 (next night, next Monday …, next week, month…, next summer…, next year), in (the) future (将来),soon (不久之后),in +时间 (in five days——再过五天,in two weeks——再过二星期),etc.

Drilling Square

Ⅰ.请在下列各题空格处填入shall或will。

1.You ______ not drive through a red light.

2.I ______ do everything for her.

3.______ you help me with this heavy bag, John?

4.______ I help you with that heavy bag, Madam?

5.Let's go and take a walk after dinner, ______ we?

6."No one ______ leave the classroom if I haven't said Okay," said the teacher.

7.It ______ soon be over, I am sure.

8.Do what you ______ , but don't go out.

9.I ______ take you there with me, if it's OK with your mother.

10.Rain or shine, I ______ come.

Ⅱ.请在下列各题空格处就所设动词给予适当的将来时。

1.A:How do you want to go to Hualain, by air or by train?

B:I am not in a hurry this time, so I (1) take the train.

2.A:(2) (you like) to go to the game this afternoon?

B:I'd love to. Where (3) (we meet) ?

A:You just stay home and wait for me. I (4) drive my car there, so I (5) (pick) you up at about 1:30 .

3.A:It's a good dictionary . I (6) (buy) it, but I don't have money with me now.

B:Don't worry. I (7) (lend) you.

4.A:I hear Miss Chen (8) leave our school and teach in a bigger school in Taipei.

B:But the principal (校长) (9) not let her go . He says she (10) teach at least for another semester until he finds a new teacher.

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一般过去时(Simple Past Tense)
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英语的时态形式(Forms of the Tenses)
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