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更新时间:2004/12/15

  语法这部分主要涉及名词代词、形容词和副词、不定式、动名词、分词、反意疑问句、从句、时态和语态、前后呼应、倒装等内容。

名词与代词

    名词可分为专有名词和普通名词两类。 而普通名词又可分为个体名词、集体名词、物质名词和抽象名词。  其中,个体名词和集体名词为可数名词,而物质名词和抽象名词为不可数名词。 名词的复数构成通常是在其后加 -s ,但以 -s , -x , -ch , -sh 和大部分以 o 结尾的名词后加 -es; 以 “ 辅音字母 +y” 结尾的名词把 “y” 变成 “i” ,再加 -es 。 有些名词的复数构成是不规则的,有其特殊形式。 有些名词在不同的情况下,属不同的名词词类,因此有时为可数,有时则为不可数。 名词的格可分为主格 ( 作主语 ) ,宾格 ( 作宾语 ) 和所有格 ( 表示所有关系 ) 。
代词可分为人称代词,物主代词,反身代词,相互代词,不定代词,指示代词,关系代词,连接代词和疑问代词等九类。
    1. 名词的用法
     可数名词除非前面有冠词或表示单数的限定词,否则要用其复数形式。例如 :
    lf a boy disobeys the order, he will be punished severely.
    The teacher firstly divided his students into four groups.
    These courses are especially designed for senior students.
     有些名词的复数构成是不规则的,如 :child-children , foot-feet , goose-geese , mouse-mice , man-men , ox-oxen , tooth-teeth , woman-women 等。例如 :
    Every fall geese fly over the house.
    The dentist told him that several teeth of his need to be filled.
    Mrs Smith has three children , and Tonny is the youngest one.
    I think we've got mice in the kitchen.
     有些名词的单复数形式是一样的 , 如 :Chinese , Japanese, Spanish( 西班牙 ) , Lebanese( 黎巴嫩 ) , Portuguese( 葡萄牙 ) , Swiss( 瑞士 ) , sheep , deer , swine( 猪 ) , fish , carp( 鲤鱼 ) , salmon( 鲑 ) , means , series , species , aircraft , spacecraft 等。例如 :
    The best fish are near the bottom.
    When they got to the New World, Spanish constructed their houses with Moorish architectural features.
    I saw a white sheep running down the road.
    Judging by his language , he must be a Japanese.
     在表示一类事物时,介词 of 后的名词要用复数形式。例如,
    Beethoven is one of the greatest musicians in the world.
    The Animal Art Festival is being held at Shanghai Zoo , which is one of the most welcome festivals in the city.
    She is one of the three martyrs who were killed in NATO 's bombing on the Chinese Embassy in Yugoslavia.
     大多数集体名词可作单数,也可作复数,如: army , audience , class , committee , crew ( 全体船员,乘务员 ) , crowd , faculty , family , government , group , orchestra , public , team , union 等。但有些虽然是单数形式,却用作复数,如 :cattle( 牲畜 ) , mankind( 人类 ) , militia( 民兵 ) , people , police , poultry( 家畜 ) , staff( 全体职员 ) 等。例如 :
The president said the Chinese Government is paying close attention to developments in this matter , and continues to reserve the right to take further action.
    The cattle were grazing on the meadow near the farm.
    The audience were amused by his humorous stories.
    My family is far away from the school.

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