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更新时间:2004/12/15

有些名词只有复数形式,而且也只用作复数,如 :clothes , glasses, spectacles , pants , arms( 武器 ) , belongings( 所有物 ) , customs( 海关 ) , goods( 货物 ) , suburbs( 郊区 ) , papers( 文件 ) 等 ; 而有些名词形式为复数,却用作单数,如 :electronics( 电子学 ) , mathematics( 数学 ) , optics( 光学 ) , politics , statistics( 统计学 ) 等。例如 :
    The shorts he wears are made of leather.
    Linguistics is a difficult subject to study.
    He used to study electronics which isn't his favorite subject.
    I love to live in the suburbs that are conclusive.
     有些名词一般情况下以单数形式出现,表示总体。但如果表示若干、多次或几种时,则要用其复数。这类词有 :hair , fruit , pollution , rain , difficulty , success , wind , failure 等。例如 :
    The barber had been cutting human hair for two years before he came to Los Angeles.
    Mother bought oranges , bananas and other fruits.
    These caves collapse easily in heavy rains and great winds.
    He's having financial difficulties.
     有些名词一般只有单数形式,它们通常是表示物质和抽象概念的不可数名词,像 :advice , baggage , bread , corn , clothing , equipment , education , fun , furniture , fruit , garbage , grass , happiness , homework , housework , humanity , information , knowledge , landscape , laughter , machinery , mankind , merchandise , money , music , nonsense , nature , population , progress , scenery , smoke , sweat , strength , traffic , thunder , ink , jewellery , damage , mail , work , soap , sugar , gold , chalk , cloth , anger , applause , cake , chocolate , poverty 等。例如 :
    I must seek the advice of a specialist in the matter of the transfer of property rights.
    Headache is the most common disease of human.
    I really get a lot of fun from reading in leisure time.
    The population of Shanghai is very big.
     有些名词单复数的含义不同,使用时要根据上下文的意思进行选择。这类词包括 :communication( 通讯 )-communications( 通讯系统,通讯工具 ) , cloth( 布 )-clothes( 衣服 ) , content( 内容 )-contents( 目录 ) , convenience( 便利 )-conveniences( 便利设备 ) , humanity( 人类 )-humanities( 人文科学 ) , necessity( 需要 )-necessities( 必需品 ) , wood( 木材 )-woods( 树林 ) , pain( 疼痛 )-pains( 辛劳 ) , ruin( 毁灭 )-ruins( 废墟,遗迹 ) , sand( 沙子 )-sands( 沙滩 ) , work( 工作 )-works( 工厂,著作 ) 等。例如 :     “Hometown” is one of Lu Xun's most famous works.
    The insurance company paid $121 , 700 in damages for the accident.
    My child enjoys pIaying on the sands.
    No pains , no gains.
     有些名词一般只有复数形式。如 :fundamentals( 基本原则 ) , goods( 货物 ) , means( 方法 ) , shorts( 短裤 ) , sweets( 欢乐 ) , valuables( 贵重物品 ) 等。
    The fundamentals are made to guarantee the social stability.
    Don't take any valuables there for the sake of safety.
    The goods we purchased from him aren't expensive.
    I think our problem can solved by means of negotiation.
     名词做定语时,不能用作复数。例如 :
    Please check your examination paper carefully after finishing it.
    The China's Central Television station supplies weather report everyday.
    You'd better infom my family members before leaving for Beijing.
    The United States and Germany are two member states of NATO .
     复合名词的复数只把其中所包含的主体名词变成复数。如 :looker(s)-on , runner(s)-up ,
    son(s)-in-law , editor(s)-in-chief , passer(s)-by , grand-child(ren) , armyman(armymen) ,
    room-number(s) , shoe lace(s) , dinner plate(s) , blood type(s) 等。如果没有主体名词,就在最后一个词上加复数词尾。如 :go-between(s) , drawback(s) 等。注意以 man , woman 构成的复合名词,全部变成复数。如 :man-servant---men-servants , woman-soldier---women-soldiers 。例如 :
    Would you bring me some dinner plates?
    We had a wonderful talk with some women-soldiers.
    Don't regard yourselves as passers-by under such circumstances.

    We are of different blood types.
     名词的所有格一般在词尾加 's ,已有复数词尾 -s 的,只加 ' 。例如 :
    We must work hard to fulfil the country's plans.
    The school is within a stone's throw .
    Nearby are her relative' houses.
     Could you tell me the Smith's address?
     名词所有格有时还可以和 of 构成短语,有以下两种情况 :
    1) 它所修饰的词前面有一个表示数量的词,如 :a , two , several , some , any , no , few 等。
    2) 它所修饰的词前面有一个指示代词,便句子表示某种情绪。例如 :
    Several students of Lao Yang's acted in the play.
    We saw a play of Guo Moro's
    At birth , the head of a baby is extremely large in relation to the rest of the body.
    I have some records of Na Ying's. 以上是名词的用法。
    2. 代词的用法
    1) 人称代词有主格人称代词,在句中充当主语 :I , you , he , she , it , we , you , they ,和宾格人称代词,在句中充当宾语 :me , you , him , her , it , us , you , them 。例如 :
    We haven't seen each other for a long time since he went abroad.
    Let you and me have an appointment for the next weekend.
    Have you got any idea about this issue?
    Tell us whatever you've heard.
    2) 物主代词可在句中作定语,有指人的 :my , our , your , his , her 和 their; 有指物的 :its , his 或 her( 指国家或轮船 ) 。名词性物主代词作表语、主语、宾语,与 of 连用可作定语 :yours , ours , theirs , mine , her , his , its 。例如 :
    Tonny is an old friend of mine.
    My dormitory is next to yours, and Mary's is on the third floor.
    Titanic sank with her several thousand passengers.
    Next time it's on my treat.
    3) 反身代词亦称自身代词,可作宾语、表语,作主语或宾语的同位语,还与某些动词连用,与介词连用构成成语。有 :myself , yourself , himself , herself , itself , ourselves , yourselves , themselves 。例如 :
    These Children are too young to take care of themselves.
    Don't worry , he will be himself again soon.
    Although Uncle George is a bad-tempered man, I think he is a kind man in himself.
    You should be responsible for yourself.
    4) 相互代词表示相互关系,有 :each other( 两者之间 ) 和 one another( 多者之间 ) 。例如 :
    I met Miss Scott this morning , and We greeted each other.
    We should learn from One another and make progress together.
    5) 指示代词在句中充当主语、宾语和定语,有 :this , that , these , those 。 Such 也是指示代词,可作定语、主语和表语,修饰可数名词时要与 a 连用。例如 :
    Nowadays TV programs are much more colorful than those of the past.
    The money spent on entertainment , according to some authorities , has exceeded that spent on public health.
    I want to know this: are you talking about the accident I enountered yesterday?
    His future is closely bound with that of the company.
    You shouldn't trust on such a person who never keeps his promise.

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