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更新时间:2004/12/17

根据1997年6月全国高等教育自学考试指导委员会最新颁布的《英语写作基础自学考试大纲》的规定,英语写作基础这一课程着重培养考生英语写作的基本技能,重点教授英语写作的最基础内容:句子的组成、段落的写作、概要及应用文写作。通过本课程的学习,要求考生掌握句子、段落以及应用文最基本的写作理论与技巧,以便写出主题较为突出、内容较为充实完善、语言较为通顺流畅、格式符合要求的短文,为学习本科阶段的英语写作课程打下坚实的基础。

英语写作基础考试题型:《英语写作基础自学考试大纲》的规定“本课程试卷采用的题型主要包括:判断题、改错题、改写题、概要写作、应用文写作等”。判断题、改错题、改写题等主要考核应考生对句子(The Sentence)和段落(The Paragraph)基本知识点如改写句子包括改写掉尾句(periodic sentence)、平行结构(parallel structure)等和判断主题句(topic sentence)等掌握情况;例如:

Ⅰ.Revise the following sentences according to the requirement

1.The plan began to shake noticeably as soon as it lifted off the runway.(periodic sentence)

2.James Joyce's Ulysses,a long and complicated novel and which is on our reading list,has been banned by the school board.(parallel structure)

Ⅱ.Read the following paragraph carefully and select the best topic sentence from the four possible answers that follow the paragraph.

Topic sentence:     .

Actually,this idea is far from the truth.The Aborigines have been able to survive for centuries in the harsh environment of the desert because their minds are highly trained in the knowledge of food sources.Since they have no means of storing food,their entire attention must be directed toward their daily search for food.From the youngest child to the oldest member of the tribe,food gathering is the top priority.The Aborigines possess a profound understanding of the life around them.

a. In the earliest years,children are taught when foods ripen,where foods are to be found,when animals sleep for months and produce,and where water is likely to be found.

b. The Aboriginse'in-depth knowledge of the environment around them.

c. The interior of Australia is arid and inhospitable to human beings.

d. Many observers have mistakenly thought that the aborigines,with so few tools.

  must have a lower intelligence than other races.

概要写作和应用文写作则不仅要求应考生掌握写概要的基本要领及应用文写作的技巧,同时要求他们将写句子和段落的技巧融合在应用文写作之中,最终写出格式正确、用词得当、表达得体的应用文来。概要(Precis)写作主要是先给出一篇文章,然后给出写概要的指令,如“Read the following passage and write a precis in one paragraph of about 100words.Try to write in your own words as far as possible.”应用文(Practical Writing)写作由三部分组成:便条(Note)、信函(Letter)和个人简历(Resume)。它们写作的形式必须根据要求写出或是某种便条,或是某种信函,或是个人简历。如下面是一则未能赴约而表示歉意的便条写作指令:Write a note of apology about 70-100 words to your friends according to the situation described:

You have made an appointment with your friends to have lunch together.But for some reasons you cannot keep the appointment.Please state your reasons and express your regret for breaking the appointment.You could also express your hope for the gathering.

再如:下面是一则打算上大学继续深造的申请信写作指令:You are planning to further your studies in a college or university.Write an application to that institution.In your letter,provide the necessary information about yourself,tell them your want to study math and find out about the possibility of receiving financial support.(150-200)

从上述的几种题型中,尤其是后三种,我们可以发现,无论是概要、便条还是信函等写作都是一种根据所提供信息的短文写作把这些已知信息写成一篇具有连贯性的概要、便条、信函或个人简历。换言之,就是考核应考生的基本写作能力。

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