1. We have covered insurance on 1,000 cases of beer for 110% of the invoice value against all risks.
2. If you desire us to insure against a special risk, an extra premium will have to be charged.
3. This risk is coverable at a premium of 0.25%.
4. The insurance company insures this risk with 5% franchise.
5. After loading the goods on board the ship, you must go to the insurance company to have them insured.
6. We can serve you with a broad range of coverage against all kinds of risks for sea transport, such as Free of Particular Average (F. P.A.), With Particular Average (W.P.A.), All Risks and Extraneous Risks.
7. W.P.A. plus Risk of Breakage suit your consignment.
8. The premium is calculated according to the premium rate or rates for risks to be covered.
9. They will undertake to compensate you for the losses according to the risks insured.
10. We are able to cover all kinds of risks for transportation by sea, land and air.
11. We won’t have such a risk included, as it is not stipulated in the Ocean Marine Cargo Clauses.
12. Do you cover risk other than W.P.A. and War Risk?
13. As a rule, the extra premium involved will be for buyer’s account.
14. Please note that our insurance coverage is for 110% of the invoice value only.
15. How long is the period from the commencement to termination of the insurance?
16. We adopt the warehouse-to-warehouse clause that is commonly used in international insurance.
17. According to international practice, we do not insure against such risks unless the buyers call for them.
18. Breakage is a special risk, for which an extra premium will have to be charged.
19. Because they aren’t delicate goods and not likely to be damaged on the voyage.
A: Good afternoon, Mr. Brown. My appointment was at 4 o’clock, wasn’t it?
B: Yes, Mrs. Wang. We have been expecting you. Mrs. Wang, this is Mr. Jordan of the People’s Insurance Company of China. He has come to explain the unfortunate affair about the insurance.
A: Thank you for coming. Mr. Brown, as you may recall, the
February consignment arrived at Manila seriously damaged. The loss through breakage was over 30% of the consignment. We’ve presented a claim to the underwriters through your firm, but the insurance company refused to admit liability, as there was no insurance on breakage. We naturally were not satisfied with such a reply.
B: I should like to hear what Mr. Jordan has to say about it. You know of course that we, the sellers, are merely acting as mediators in this matter. The Insurance Company is responsible for the claim, as far as it is within the scope of coverage.
J: That’s just the point. The loss in question was beyond the
coverage granted by us. According to your instructions, we made out an insurance certificate covering W.P.A. and the risk of break- age wasn’t mentioned in it. We rang up the Ceramics Section of Light Industrial Products Import & Export Corporation, but were told that their customer had not asked for coverage in case of breakage.
-- 是的，王小姐。我们一直在等你。王小姐，这位是中国人民保险公 司的乔丹先生。他是来解释这次不幸事件的保险问题的。
-- 谢谢你来。布朗先生，你也许记得，二月份发运到马尼拉的那批货 物破碎严重。破碎损失超过这批货物的百分之三十。我们已通过你 们公司向保险公司提出了索赔，但保险公司以没投保破碎险为由， 拒绝承担责任。我们当然对这种回答不满意。
-- 我想听听乔丹先生对此有什么看法。当然，你是知道的，我们卖方 对这种事只是个调解人。只要在保险责任范围内，保险公司就应负 赔偿责任。
-- 问题就在这里。你说的损失并不包括在我们承保的责任范围之内。 根据你们的要求，我们出具了投保水渍险的保险凭证，但没提及到 破碎险。我们曾打电话给轻工业品公司陶瓷品部，但他们说，客户 并未要求投保破碎险。
B: In the letter of credit only coverage for all marine risks?was requested. I should like to point out that our prices were calcu- lated without insurance for any special risk. So we applied for the usual W.P.A. coverage and let our customers deal with the matter of breakage. Since the validity of the letter of credit was going to expire in two days, there was no time to write for more detailed instructions. If the L/C had been valid for a longer period, we should have had time to make the matter thoroughly clear.
A: Mr. Brown, our import license only ran up to the middle of February, consequently we were not able to extend the validity of the letter of credit. But we presume that the wording of our L/C implies covering the risk of breakage. Besides, when I take a W.P. A. insurance, that is, with particular average, I should think the risk of breakage is a par ticular average, isn’t it?
J: Not every breakage is a particular average. It is a particular aver- age when the breakage results from natural ca lam i ties or mar i time accidents, such as stranding and sinking of the car ry ing vessel, or is attributable to fire, explosion or collision. If none of these conditions occur, break age is often considered as an or di nary loss and rep re sents what we call ?inherent vice or nature of the subject matter insured? which is outside the scope of the coverage.
-- 信用证只要求投保“综合海运险”。我想要指出的是，我们的价格 没把任何特殊险计算在内，所以我们只投保了通常的水渍险，而让 我们的客户自行办理破碎险事宜。由于信用证两天内就要到期，来 不及写出更详细的说明。如果信用证的有效期长一点的话，我们就 会有时间把事情彻底说清楚。
-- 布朗先生，我们进口许可证的有效期到二月中旬截止，因此我们无 法延长信用证的有效期。但是我方认为信用证的措辞包含了投保破 碎险。此外，当我投保水渍险时，那就是对单独海损要负责赔偿， 我想破碎险是属于一种单独海损，对不对？
-- 并不是所有破碎险都是属于单独海损。只是由于自然灾害或意外事 故所造成的破碎，如货船搁浅与沉没，或归因于着火、爆炸、或碰 撞所引起的破碎才算是属于单独海损。如果没有发生上述事故，破 碎便常被认为是一种普通损失，也就是我们所说的，由于“货物内 在缺陷或特性”所引起的损失，不属于承保范围之内。
A: But the risk of breakage is covered by marine insurance, isn’t it?
J: Certainly, but it is a usual practice to make specific mention in the insurance policy or certificate that the risk of breakage is included. The inclusion of this special risk will be subject to an additional premium that will normally be higher than the basic insurance for the ordinary marine risks. The rate for such risk will vary accord- ing to the kind of commodity, or, as in ceramics, according to the fragility of the goods. I think you must know all about that.
A: Well, I have heard something about it but I can’t say that it is very clear to me. I must admit I’m a layman as far as insurance is concerned.
J: Then let me explain this insurance.
B: Mrs. Wang, would you care for a cup of tea? Or some coffee?
A: Thank you. A cup of tea would be nice. And now, let me hear more about the problem of insurance.
-- 当然，可是按照通常惯例要在保险单或保险凭证上特别注明破碎 险包括在内。包括这种特别险就必须附加保险费。这种保险费一 般要比通常的海洋运输货物险的基本险高。这类险别的保险费率 将根据货物种类，比如陶瓷器，根据货物的易脆性而有所不同。我想这些你应该都知道。
W: Do I understand that All Marine Risks means less than All Risks?
J: The English understand by marine risks?only risks incident to transport by sea, such as collision, stranding, fire, pen e tra tion of sea water into the holds of the ships, etc. In other words, under ?all marine risks? recoverable loss will only be con fined to those arising from perils of the sea and maritime accidents only. The all risks?coverage will admit all losses occurring at any time throughout the whole currency of the coverage, irrespective of whether they are caused by accidents at sea or on land. In this sense, all marine risks provides a more limited cover than all risks?
W: I see. Another thing I don’t understand at this moment is the advantage of W.P.A. coverage. I thought that the W.P.A. insurance should cover all principal risks while, according to what you say, it means very little. It seems to be a phrase without much substance. Then what is the difference between W.P.A. and F.P.A.?
-- 英国人对“海洋运输货物险”只理解为海运中的意外风险，诸如 船舶碰撞、搁浅、起火、海水侵入船舱等。换句话说，投保“一 切海洋运输货物险”，其损失的赔偿只限于因海上灾难和海运意外事故所引起的损失。而保“一切险”，在全部承保期内的任何时期，不论海上或陆上所产生的意外事故，其全部损失都予以赔偿。在 这个意义上，“一切海洋运输货物险”比“一切险”所承保的责任 范围更为有限。
-- 我懂了。另外一件事我现在还不明白的是，保“水渍险”有什么 好处。 我原以为“水渍险”应包括全部主要风险，而根据你所说 的，它的承保责任却是很少。徒有其名，而没有本质意义。那么，“水渍险”与“平安险”有什么区别呢？
J: This is a question that is very often overlooked, Mrs. Wang. It is a very common but mistaken idea that a merchant has done everything that is required to protect him against loss es when he has taken out W.P.A. insurance. There is, perhaps, no mistake more det ri men tal to his interests.
W: That interests me very much. I must confess that I was under the impression that W.P.A. insurance was quite sufficient and that losses due to breakage were covered. I know that F.P.A. insur- ance does not cover losses on consumer goods, but I did think that the W.P.A. in sur ance covered more risks than the F.P.A.
J: Actually it is like this. There is some difference between W.P.A. and F.P.A. The F.P.A. clause does not cover par tial loss of the nature of particular average, whereas the W.P.A. claus es cover such losses when they exceed a prearranged percentage. This is the only dif fer ence between W.P.A. and F.P.A. Otherwise, the protection under the F.P.A. clause will be al most identical with that of fered by the W.P.A. clause, because in the event of mari- time ac ci dents en coun tered in transit, such as stranding, fire, explosion or collision, both clauses will cov er particular average losses in full.
-- 王小姐，这是一个经常被人忽略的问题。这是个很普通却又是个 很错误的想法，那就是商人投保了“水渍险”，便以为足以保障其 利益不受损失。恐怕没别的错误比这个更有损他自己的利益的了。
-- 很有意思。我得承认，以往我总认为投保了“水渍险”就够了； 而且以为破碎引起的种种损失也包括在内。我知道“平安险”并 不包括消费品的种种损失，但我确实以 为“水渍险”比“平安 险”承保的范围更大。
-- 确实是这样。“水渍险”与“平安险”是有些不同。“平安险”条款 不包括单独海损性质的部分损失，而“水渍险”条款当超过事先
W: I don’t mean to annoy you, Mr. Jordan, but I don’t quite grasp this. Couldn’t you say it in simpler terms?
J: I’ll try. Neither the W.P.A. nor the F.P.A. mentions the risks covered or the risks excluded. The extent of in sur ance is stipulated in the basic policy form and in the various risks clauses. Look at the in sur ance certificates and you will find that the risks of theft and pilferage, freshwater, oil, grease, hooks, breakage, leakage, contamination, deterioration, etc. are specifically mentioned and must be specifically applied for. These are special risks. F.P.A. stands for free of Particular Average?while W. P. A. or W.A. stands for With Particular Average?
W: Mr. Jordan, I must say that you have corrected my ideas about the insurance. I see now that this is far more complicated than I had imagined.
B: Now I know why you often point out to us the wording of some letter of credit which you don’t feel happy about. But what are we to do about it? We must keep to the stipulations of the contract and the letter of credit.
-- 乔丹先生，我并不想让你生气，但是我还是不太懂。你能否说得 简单一点？
-- 我试试看。无论“水渍险”还是“平安险”都不注明包括哪些险别 或者不包括哪些险别。 保险范围是写在基本保险单内和各种险别条 款里。你看保险凭证就会发现偷窃险、淡水险、油渍险、油污险、 钩损险、破碎险、渗漏险、沾污险、变质险等都特加注明，并且必 须特别申保。这些就是特别险。F.P.A.代表Free from Particular
Average（平安险），而W.P.A.或W.A.代表 With Particular Average (水渍险)。
-- 乔丹先生，我得说，你已经改正了我对保险的想法。我现在才明 白，这比我以前想象的要复杂多了。
-- 现在我才知道，你为什么经常向我们指出，你对某些信用证的措辞 感到不愉快。 但现在我们该怎么办呢？我们一定要遵守合约和信用 证的规定。
W: The blame does not only rest with the letter of credit. For an item like ceramics, I think the Light Industrial Products Corporation should have understood from our letter of cred it that we want ed to cover all the risks, including the risk of breakage. I must say the error was on both sides and I think the loss ought to be shar- ed by both parties, let us say half and half.
B: Our price calculation could hardly admit that. Besides, we act ed upon your instructions, so it is not our fault. But in view of our good relationship, we’ll supply you with a favorable offer to com- pensate some of your losses.
J: (rising) I sincerely hope that you will settle the matter to your mutual satisfaction.
W: It goes without saying that both parties must abide by the con- tract terms that we have agreed upon and signed. This blunder, which is due to my ignorance, has cost me a pret ty penny.
B: We also have learned a lesson from this.
W: Well, to compensate a part of the loss, as you suggested, may I ask you to make us a firm offer for 50,000 glazed wall tiles C.I.F. Manila including the risk of breakage, November shipment?
B: We’ll make you an offer tomorrow. Come and see us at 9 a.m.
W: Thank you. Tomorrow at 9 then.
-- 问题不只是信用证。对于陶瓷器来说，我想轻工业品公司应从我 们的信用证中领会到我们要保的是“一切险”，包括破碎险在内。 所以我得说双方都有错误，我认为损失应由双方承担，我们就对半 负担吧。
-- 我们的计价不容许这么做。此外，我们是根据你们的要求办理的， 所以这不是我们的过错。但鉴于我们之间的良好关系，我们准备给 你提供一个优惠报盘，借以补偿你方的一些损失。
-- 不用说，双方都必须遵守已经同意并已签署过的合约条款。这次疏 忽是由于我的无知，使我损失了不少钱。
-- 如你所说，为了赔偿一部分损失，可否请你们报给我们一个实盘： 五万块釉面瓷砖包括破碎险在内、马尼拉到岸价，11月份装船？
Words and Expressions
breakage [5breikidV] 破损险
leakage [5li:kidV] 渗漏险
glazed wall tile 釉面瓷砖
clarify [5klArifai] 澄清;阐明
recall [ ri5kC:l ] 回忆，记起
underwriter [5QndEraitE] 承保人，保险公司
concurrence [kEn5kQrEns] 结合；赞同
fortuity [ fC:5tjuiti ] 偶然，意外
mediator [`mi:dIeItE ] 调停人，中间人
coverage [ 5kQvEridV ] 保险项目
liability [ 7laiE5biliti ] 责任，义务
stranding [ `strAndiN ] 搁浅
wording [ 5wE:diN ] 措辞；用语
explosion [ iks5plEuVEn ] 爆炸
collision [ kE5liVEn ] 碰撞；冲突
deterioration [ di7tiEriE5reiFEn ] 变质（变坏）
premium [ 5primjEm ] 保险费
layman [5leImEn] 外行
fragility [frE5dViliti] 脆弱，易碎
inclusion [in5klu:VEn] 包括；包含
detrimental [7detri5mentl] 有害的，不利的
1. basic policy form 基本保险单（指印刷的保单文字）
2. to file a complaint 提出异议（申诉）
3. results from maritime accident 海上事故造成的结果
4. inherent vice 固有缺陷
5. to refuse to admit liability 拒绝承担责任
6. to be merely acting as mediators in this matter
7. within the scope of coverage 在承保险别范围内
8. to the satisfaction of 以满足
A Specimen Letter
We are glad to inform you that your order No.124 will be shipped per s/s peace? due to leave here at the end of this month.
Unless otherwise instructed, we will arrange to take out an All Risks insurance policy for you on your order. This type of coverage is, in our opinion, necessary for a cargo of this nature.
1 As a rule, we don’t cover them unless you would like to.
2 You can be sure that we will have the merchandise insured as soon as they are shipped.