Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes) Section A Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a Pause.During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Example: You will hear You will rerd A) 2 hours. B) 3 hours. C) 4 hours. D) 5 hours. From the conversation we know that the two are talking about some work they will start at 9 o 'clock in the morning and have to finish at 2 in the afternoon. Therefore D) f'5 hours" is the correct answer. You should choose [Dl on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the centre Sample Answer [A] [B] [C] [D] l. A) Registering for courses. C) Buying a new computer B) Getting directions. D) Studying sociology. 2. A) The man will probably have to find a roommate. B) The man is unlikely to live in the suburbs. C) The man will probably have to buy a car D) The man is unlikely to find exactly what he desires. 3. A) Painting a picture. C) Designing a studio. B) Hosting a program. D) Taking a photograph. 4. A) The woman doesn't think it a problem to get her passport renewed. B) The woman has difficulty renewing her passport. C) The woman hasn't renewed her passport yet. D) The woman's passport is still valid. 5. A) A prediction of the future of mankind. C) An opportunity for a good job. B) A new drug that may benefit mankind. D) An unsuccessful experiment. 6. A) A lesson requires students' active involvement. B) Students usually take an active part in a lecture. C) More knowledge is covered in a lecture. D) There is a larger group of people interested in lessons. 7. A) Neither of their watches keeps good time. B) The woman's watch stopped 3 hours ago. C) The man's watch goes too fast. D) It's too dark for the woman to read her watch. 8. A) She's proud of being able to do many things at the same time. B) She is sure to finish all the things in a few hours. C) She dreams of becoming a millionaire some day. D) She's been kept extremely busy. 9. A) He wants his students to be on time for class. B) He doesn't allow his students to tell jokes in class. C) He is always punctual for his class. D) He rarely notices which students are late. 10. A) He is nervous about the exam. C) He doesn't dare to tell lies. B) He is looking for a job. D) He doesn't know how to answer the questions. Section B Directions: In this section, you will hear 3 short P passages. At the end of each passage, you will hear some questions. Both the passage and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on the answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 11 to 14 are based on the passage you have just heard. ll. A) She was bored with her idle life at home. B) She was offered a good job by her neighbour. C) she wanted to help with the family’s finances. D) Her family would like to see her mere involved in social life. l2. A) Doing housework. C) Reading papers and watching TV B) Looking after her neighbour's children. D) Taking good care of her husband. l3. A) Jane got angry at Bill's idle life. B) Bill failed to adapt to the new situation. C) Bill blamed Jane for neglecting the family. D) The chi1dren were not taken good care of 14.A) Neighbours should help each other. B) Women should have their own careers. C) Man and wife should share household duties. D) Parents should take good care of their children. Passage Two Questions 15 to 17 are based on the passage you have just heard. 15. A) To predict natural disasters that can cause vast destruction. B) To limit the destruction that natural disasters may cause. C) To gain financial support from the United Nations. D) To propose measures to hold back natural disasters. 16. A) There is still a long way to go before man can control natural disasters. B) International cooperation can minimize the destructive force of natural disasters. C) Technology can help reduce the damage natural disasters may cause. D] Scientists can successfully predict earthquakes. 17. A] There were fatal mistakes in its design. B] The builder didn't observe the building codes of the time. C] The traffic load went beyond its capacity. D] It was built according to less strict earthquake-resistance standards. Passage Three Questions 18 to 20 are based on the passage you have just heard. 18. A] By judging to what extent they can eliminate the risks. B] By estimating the possible loss of lives and property. C] By estimating the frequency of volcanic eruptions. D] By judging the possible risks against the likely benefits. 19. A] One of Etna's recent eruptions made many people move away. B] Etna's frequent eruptions have ruined most of the local farmland. C] Etna's eruptions are frequent but usually mild. D] There are signs that Etna will erupt again in the near future. 20. A] They will remain where they are. B] They will leave this area for ever. C] They will turn to experts for advice. D] They will seek shelter in nearby regions.
Part ll Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Directions: There are 4 passages in this Part. Each passage is followed by some questions or Unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre. Passage One Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage. When global warming finally came, it stuck with a vengeance (异乎寻常地). In some regions, temperatures rose several degrees in less than a century Sea levels shot up nearly 400 feet, flooding coastal settlements and forcing people to migrate inland. Deserts spread throughout the world as vegetation shifted drastically in North America, Europe and Asia. After driving many of the animals around them to near extinction, people were forced to abandon their old way of life for a radically new survival strategy that resulted in widespread starvation and disease. The adaptation was farming: the global-warming crisis that gave rise to it happened more than l0,000 years ago. As environmentalists convene in rio de Janeiro this week to ponder the global climate of the future, earth scientists are in the midst of a revolution in understanding how climate has changed in the past -- and how those changes have transformed human existence. Researchers have begun to piece together an illuminating picture of the powerful geo1ogical and astronomical forces that have combined to change the planet's environment from hot to cold, wet to dry and back again over a time Period stretching back hundreds of millions of years. Most important, scientists are beginning to realize that the climatic changes have had a major impact on the evolution of the human species. New research now suggests that climate shifts have played a key role in nearly every significant turning point in human evolution: from the dawn of Primates (灵长类动物) some 65 million years ago to human ancestors rising up to walk on two legs, from the huge expansion of the human brain to the rise of agriculture. Indeed, the human history has not been merely touched by global climate change, some scientists argue, it has in some instances been driven by it. The new research has profound implications for the environmental summit in Rio. Among other things, the findings demonstrate that dramatic climate change is nothing new for planet Earth. The benign (宜人的) global environment that has existed over the past l0,00O years - during which agriculture, writing, cities and most other features of civilization appeared -- is a mere bright spot in a much large pattern of widely varying climate over the ages. In fact the pattern of climate change in the past reveals that Earth's climate will almost certainly go through dramatic changes in the future -- even without the influence of human activity 2l. Farming emerged as a survival strategy because man had been obliged -- A) to give up his former way of life B) to leave the coastal areas. C) to follow the ever-shifting vegetation D) to abandon his original settlement. 22. Earth scientists have come to understand that climate -- A) is going trough a fundamental change B) has been getting warmer for l0, 000 years C) will eventually change from hot to cold. D) has gone through Periodical changes 23. Scientists believe that human evolution - A) has seldom been accompanied by climatic changes B) has exerted little influence on climatic changes C) has large1y been effected by climatic changes D) has had a major impact on climatic changes 24. Evidence of past climatic changes indicates that . A) human activities have accelerated changes of Earth's environment B) Earth's environment will remain mild despite human interference C) Earth's climate is bound to change significantly in the future D) Earth's climate is unlikely to undergo substantial changes in the future 25. The message the author wishes to convey in the passage is that . A) human civilization remains glorious though it is affected by climatic changes B) mankind is virtually helpless in the face of the dramatic changes of climate C) man has to limit his activities to slow down the global warming process D) human civilization will continue to develop in spite of the changes of nature Passage two Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage. No woman can be too rich or too thin. This saying often attributed to the late Duchess (公爵夫人 ) of Windsor embodies much of the odd spirit of our times. Being thin is deemed as such virtue. The Problem with such a view is that some people actually attempt to live by it. I myself have fantasies of slipping into narrow designer clothes. Consequently, I have been on a diet for the better -- or worse -- part of my life. Being rich wouldn't be bad either, but that won't happen unless an unknown relative dies suddenly in some distant land, leaving me millions of dollars. Where did we go off the track? When did eating butter become a sin, and a little bit of extra flesh unappealing, if not repellent? All religions have certain days when PeOPle refrain from eating, and excessive eating is one of Christianity's seven deadly sins. However until quite recently, most People had a problem getting enough to eat. In some religious groups, Wealth was a symbol of probable salvation and nigh morals, and fatness a sign of wealth and well-being. Today the Opposite is true. We have shifted to thinness as ourk new mar of virtue. The result is that being fat -- or even only somewhat overweight -- is bad because it implies a lack of moral strength. Our obsession (迷恋) with thinness is also fueled by health concerns. It is true that in this country we have more overweight people than ever before, and that, in many cases, being over weight correlates with an increased risk of heart and blood vessel disease. These diseases, however, may have as much to do with our way of life and our high-fat diets as with excess weight. And the associated risk of cancer in the digestive system may be more of a dietary problem -- too much fat and a lack of fiber -- than a weight problem. The real concern, then, is not that we weigh too much, but that we neither exercise enough nor eat well. Exercise is necessary for strong bones and both heart and lung health. A balanced diet without a lot of fat can also help the body avoid many diseases. We should surely stop -paying so much attention to weight. Simply being thin is not enough. It is actually hazardous if those who get (or already are) thin think they are automatically healthy and thus free from paying attention to their overall life-style. Thinness can be pure vainglory (虚荣). 26. In the eyes of the author an odd phenomenon nowadays is that --. A) the Duchess of Windsor is regarded as a woman of virtue B) looking slim is a symbol of having a large fortune C) being thin is viewed as a much desired quality D) religious people are not necessarily virtuous 27. Swept by the prevailing trend, the author --. A) had to go on a diet for the greater part of her life B) could still prevent herself from going off the track C) had to seek help from rich distant relatives D) had to wear highly fashionable clothes 28. In human history people’s views on body weight . A) were closely related to their religious beliefs B) changed from time to time C) varied between the poor and the rich D) led to different moral standards 29. The author criticizes women's obsession with thinness --. A) from an economic and educational perspective B) from sociological and medical points of view C) from a historical and religious standpoint D) in the light of moral principles 30. What's the author’s advice to women who are absorbed in the idea of thinness? A) They should be more concerned with their overall lifestyle. B) They should be more watchful for fatal diseases. C) They should gain weight to look healthy. D) They should rid themse1ves of fantasies about designer clothes. Passage Three Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage. War may be a natura1 expression of biological instinct and drives toward aggression in the human species. natural impulses of anger, hostility, and territoriality (守卫地盘的天性) are expressed through acts of violence. These are all qualities that humans share with animals. Aggression is a kind of innate (天生的) survival mechanism, an instinct for self-preservation, that allows animals to defend themselves from threats to their existence. But, on the other hand, human violence shows evidence of being a learned behavior. In the case of human aggression, violence can not be simply reduced to an instinct. The many expressions of human violence are always conditioned by social conventions that give shape to aggressive behavior. In human societies vio1ence has a social function: It is a strategy for creating or destroying forms of social order. Religious traditions have taken a leading role in directing the powers of violence. We will look at the ritual and ethical (道德上的) patterns within which human violence has been directed. The violence within a society is controlled through institutions of law .The more developed a legal system becomes, the more society takes responsibility for the discovery, control, and punishment of violent acts. In most tribal societies the only means to deal with an act of violence is revenge. Each family group may have the responsibility for personally carrying out judgment and punishment upon the person who committed the offense. But in legal systems, the responsibility for revenge becomes depersonalized and diffused. The society assumes the responsibility for protecting individuals from violence. In cases where they cannot be protected, the society is responsible for imposing punishment. In a state controlled legal system, individuals are removed from the cycle of revenge motivated by acts of violence, and the state assumes responsibility for their protection. The other side of a state legal apparatus is a state military apparatus. while the one protects the individual from violence, the other sacrifices the individual to violence in the interests of the state. In war the state affirms supreme power over the individuals within its own borders. War is not simply a trial by combat to settle disputes between states; it is the moment when the state makes its most powerful demands upon its people for their commitment, allegiance, and supreme sacrifice. Times of war test a community’s deepest religious and ethical commitments. 31. Human violence shows evidence of being a 1earned behavior in that -- A) it threatens the existing social systems B) it is influenced by society C) it has roots in religious conflicts D) it is directed against institutions of law 32. The function of legal systems, according to the passage, is --. A) to control violence within a society B) to protect the world from chaos C) to free society from the idea of revenge D) to give the government absolute power 33. What does the author mean by saying "... in legal systems, the responsibility for revenge becomes depersonalized and diffused”(Lines 5-6, Para. 2)? A) Legal systems gre4tly reduce the possibilities of physical violence. B) Offenses against individuals are no longer judged on a personal basis. C) Victims of violence find it more difficult to take revenge. D) Punishment is not dried out directly by the individuals involved. 34. The world “allegiance" (Line 5, Para. 3) is closest in meaning to --. A) loyalty C) survival B) objective D) motive 35. What can we learn from the last paragraph? A) Governments tend to abuse their supreme Power in times of war B) In times of war governments may extend their power across national borders. C) In times of war governments impose high religious and ethical standards on their people. D) Governments may sacrifice individuals in the interests of the state in times of war. Passage Four Questions 36 to 4o are based on the following passage. Researchers who are unfamiliar with the cultural and ethnic groups they are studying must take extra precautions to shed any biases they bring with them from their own culture. For example, they must make sure they construct measures that are meaningful for each of the cultural or ethnic minority groups being studied. In conducting research on culture and ethnic minority issues, investigators distinguish between the emic approach and the etic approach. In the emic approach, the goal is to describe behavior in one culture or ethnic group in terms that are meaningful and wit to the People in that culture or ethnic group, without regard to other cultures or ethnic groups. In the etic approach, the goal is to describe behavior so that generalizations can be made across cultures. If researchers construct a questionnaire in an emic fashion, their concern is only that the questions are meaningful to the particular culture or ethnic group being studied. If, however, the researchers construct a questionnaire in an etic fashion, they want to include questions that reflect concepts familiar to all cultures involved. How might the emic and etic approaches be reflected in the study of family processes? In the emic approach, the researchers might choose to focus only on middle-class White families, without regard for whether the information obtained in the study can be generalized or is appropriate for ethic minority groups. In a subsequent study the researchers may decide to adopt an etic approach by studying not only middle-class, White families, but also lower-income White families, Black American families, Spanish American families, and Asian American families. In studying in ethic minority families, the researchers would likely discover that the extended family is more frequently a support system in ethnic minority families than in White American families. If so, the emic approach would reveal a different pattern of family interaction than would the etic approach, documenting that research with middle-class White families cannot always be generalized to all ethnic groups. 36. According to the first paragraph, researchers unfamiliar with the target cultures are inclined to A) be overcautious in constructing meaningful measures B) view them from their own cultural perspective C) guard against interference from their own culture D) accept readily what is alien to their own culture 37. What does the author say about the emic approach and the etic approach? A) They have different research focuses in the study of ethnic issues. B) The former is biased while the latter is objective. C) The former concentrates on the study of culture while the latter on family issues. D) They are both heavily dependent on questionnaires in conducting surveys. 38. Compared with the etic approach, the emic approach is apparently more --. A) culturally interactive C) culturally biased B) culture-oriented D) culture-specific 39. The etic approach is concerned with . A) the general characteristics of minority families B) culture-related concepts of individual ethnic groups C) features shared by various cultures or ethnic groups D) the economic conditions of different types of families 40. Which of the following is true of the ethnic minority families in the U.S. according to the passage? A) Their cultural patterns are usually more adaptable. B) Their cultural concepts are difficult to comprehend. C) They don't interact with each other so much as White families. D) They have closer family ties than White families.
Part III Vocabulary (20 minutes) Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this Part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the ONE answer that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer sheet with a single line through the center. 4l. It was that the restaurant discriminated against black customers. A) addicted C) assaulted B) alleged D) ascribed 42. The medicine -- his pain but did not care his illness. A) activated C) mediated B) alleviated D) deteriorated 43. He is the only Person who can in this case, because the other witnesses were killed mysterious1y A) testify C) accuse B) charge D) rectify 44. Professor Hawking is -- as one of the world’s greatest living physicists. A) dignified C) acknowledged B) clarified D) illustrated 45. The financial problem of this company is further -- by the rise in interest rates. A) increased C) reinforced C) strengthened D) aggravated 46. We shall probably never be able to -- the exact nature of these sub-atomic particles. A) assert C) ascertain B) impart D) notify 47. All the people in the stadium cheered up when they saw hundreds of colourful balloons slowly into the sky. A) ascending C) escalating B) elevating D) lingering 48. Many years had -- before they returned to their original urban areas. A) floated C) skipped B) elapsed D) proceeded. 49. What you say now is not -- with what you said last week. A) consistent. C) permanent B) persistent D) insistent 50. Military orders are -- and cannot be disobeyed. A) defective C) alternative B) conservative D) imperative 5l. Some educators try to put students of similar abilities into the same class because they believe this kind of -- grouping is advisable. A) homogeneous C) spontaneous B) instantaneous D) anonymous 52. Even sensible men do -- things sometimes. A) abrupt C) acute B) absurd D) apt 53. The commission would find itself -- at every turn if its members couldn't reach an agreement. A) collided C) crumbled B) savaged D) hampered 54. Grain production in the word is -- but still millions go hungry. A) staggering C) soaring B) shrinking D) suspending 55. He developed a -- attitude after years of frustration in his career A) sneaking C) drastic B) disgusted D) cynical 56. They believed that this was not the -- of their campaign for equality but merely the beginning. A) climax C) pitch B) summit D) maximum 57. Several guests were waiting in the -- for the front door to open. A) porch C) inlet B) vent D) entry 58. As the mountains were covered with a of cloud, we couldn't see their tops. A) coating C) veil B) film D) shade 59. We couldn't really afford to buy a house so we got it on fore purchase and paid monthly A) investments C) arrangements B) requirements D) installment 60. The magician made us think he cut the girl into pieces but it was merely an A) illusion C) image B) impression D) illumination 6l. A good education is an you can fall back on for the rest of your life. A) asset C) inventory B) ethic D) obligation 62. Giving a gift can convey a wealth of meaning about your appreciation of their and the importance you place upon the relationship. A) solidarity C) superiority B) priority D) hospitality 63. The designer has applied for a -- for his new invention. A) tariff C) version B) discount D) patent 64. The toy maker produces a -- copy of the space station, exact in every detail. A) minimal C) miniature B) minimum D) minor 65. An energy tax would curb ordinary air pollution, limit oil imports and cut the budget . A) disposition C) defect B) discrepancy D) deficit 66. They have decided to w physical punishment in all local schools. A) put away C) do away with B) breakaway from D) pass away 67. Astronauts are -- all kinds of tests before they are actuaI1y sent up in a spacecraft. A) inclined to C) prone to B) subjected to D) bound to 68. Individual sports are run by over 370 independent governing bodies whose functions usually include -- rules, holding events, selecting national teams and promoting international links. A) drawing on C) drawing up B) drawing in D) drawing down 69. Up until that time. his interest had focused almost on fully mastering the skills and techniques of his craft. A) restrictively C) inclusively B) radically D) exclusively 70. All the ceremonies at the 2000 Olympic Games had a unique Australian flavor, of their multicultural communities. A) noticeable C) conspicuous B) indicative D) implicit
Part IV Error Correction (15 minutes) Directions: This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, there are altogether i0 mistakes, one in each numbered line. You may have to change a word, add a word or delete a word. Mark out the mistakes and put the corrections in the blank provided If you change a word, cross it out and write the correct word in the corresponding blank If you and a word put an insertion mark (A) in the right place and write the missing word in the blank. If you delete a word cross it out and put a slash (/) in the blank. Example: Te1evision is rapidly becoming the literature 1. time/times/period of our periods. Many of the arguments having for the study 2. of literature as a school subject are valid for study 3. the of television. A great many cities are experiencing difficulties which are nothing new in the history of cities, except in their scale. Some cities have lost their original purpose and have not found new one. And any large or rich S1. city is going to attract poor immigrants, who flood in, S2. filling with hopes of prosperity which are then often disappointing. There are backward towns on the edge of S3. Bombay or Brasilia, just as though there were on the edge of seventeenth-century London or early nineteenth-century S4. Paris. This is new is the scale. Descriptions written by eighteenth-century travelers of the poor S5. of Mexico City, and the enormous contrasts that was to be found S6. there, are very dissimilar to descriptions of Mexico City today - the poor can still be numbered in millions. The whole monstrous growth rests on economic prosperity, but behind it lies two myths: the myth of the city as a promised land, S7. that attracts immigrants from rural poverty and brings it flooding S8. into city centers, and the myth of the country as a Garden of Eden, S9. which, a few generations late, sends them flooding out again to S10. the suburbs. Part V Writing （30 minutes） Directions：For this part, you are allowed thirty minutes to write a composition on the topic Student Use of Computers. You should write at least 150 words, and base your composition on the chart and the outline given below: Hours/week图略 1．上图所示为 1990年、1995年、2000年某校大学生使用计算机的情况，请描述其变化； 2．请说明发生这些变化的原因（可从计算机的用途、价格或社会发展等方面加以说明）： 3．你认为目前大学生在计算机使用中有什么困难或问题。 Student Use of Computers
Section A 1. W: The deadline for the sociology and computer courses is the day after tomorrow. M: But I haven’t decided which courses to take yet. Q: What are the man and woman talking about？ （A） 2. M: I’m looking for an apartment with a monthly rent to around 200 dollars in this neighborhood. Can you give me some advice on that? W: Well, it’s rather hard to find anything for less than 300 dollars around here. Rents are lower in the suburbs, but you’ll need transportation if you choose to live there. Q: What do we learn from the conversation? （D） 3. W: Well, tonight we have Professor Brown in the studio to talk about his recent book Fashion Images. Good evening, professor. M: Good evening, and thank you for inviting me here this evening. Q: What is the woman doing? （B） 4. M: Have you run up against any problems in getting your passport renewed? W: I haven’t started applying yet. Q: What do we know from the conversation? （C） 5. M: I must point out that trials of new medicine are expensive and you can never guarantee success. W: But there’s a very good chance in this case. I do hope you’ll go ahead in the view of the potential benefit to mankind. Q: What are the two speakers talking about? （B） 6. W: What’s the difference between a lesson and a lecture? M: Well, they are both ways of imparting knowledge. But the main difference is that you participate in a lesson whereas you just listen to a lecture. A lecture is generally given to a much larger group. Q: What does the man mean? （A） 7. W: It’s awfully dark for 4 O’clock. Do you think it’s going to rain? M: You’d better do something about that watch of yours. It must have stopped hours ago. Mine says 7. Q: What conclusion can we draw from this conversation? （B） 8. M: You’re looking a little overwhelmed. W: Exactly. You know I got a million things to do and all of them have to be finished within 3 hours. Q: What does the woman mean? （D） 9. M: Ah-Ah. Looks like I’m going to be a little late for class. I hope Professor Clark doesn’t start on time today. W: Are you kidding? You count such a watch by the time he starts his class. Q: What can be inferred about Professor Clark? （C） 10. M: I’m both excited and nervous about the job interview this afternoon. W: Take it easy. Just wear tidy and clean clothes and response truthfully to inquiries. Remember, honesty is the best policy. Q: What do we learn about the wan? （B） Section B Passage 1 Jean Brown has been married for 12 years. She has 3 children, and lives in the suburb outside Columbus, Ohio. When her youngest child reached school age, Jean decided to go back to work. She felt that she should contribute to the household financies. Her salary can make a difference between the financial struggle and secure financial situation for her family. Jean also felt bored and frustrated in her role as a homemaker and wanted to be more involved in life outside her home. Jean was worried about her children’s adjustment to this new situation. But she arranged for them to go stay with the woman nearby after school each afternoon. They seem to be happy with the arrangement. The problem seem to be between Jean and her husband, Bill. When Jean was at home all day, she was able to clean the house, go grocery shopping, wash the clothes, take care of the children and cook 2 or 3 meals each day. She was very busy of course. But she succeeded in getting everything done. Now the same things need to be done, but Jean has only evenings and early mornings to do them. Both Jean and Bill are tired when they arrive home at 6 P.M. Bill is accustomed to sitting down and reading the paper or watching TV until dinner is ready. This is exactly what Jean feels like doing. But some one has to fix the dinner and Bill expects it to be Jean. Jean has become very angry at Bill’s attitude. She feels that they should share the household jobs. But Bill feels that everything should be the same as it was before Jean went back to work. 11. Why did Jean want to go back to work? 12. How did Jean spend her days before she went back to work? （C） 13. What problem arose when Jean went back to work? （A） 14. What does the story try to tell us？（B） Passage 2 The decade for natural disaster reduction is a program designed to reduce the impact of natural disasters throughout the world. With support from the United Nations, countries will be encouraged to share information about disaster reduction. For instance, information about how to plan for and cope with hurricanes, earthquakes and other natural disasters. One of the most important things the program plans to do is to remind us of what we can do to protect ourselves. For example, we can pack a suitcase with flashlights, a radio, food, drinking water and some tools. This safety may help us survive a disaster until help arrives. Besides, the program will encourage governments to establish building standards, emergency response plans, and training programs, These measures can help to limit the destruction by natural disasters. The comparatively mild effects of the northern California earthquake in 1989 are good evidence that we do have the technology to prevent vast destruction. The recent disasters, on the other hand, prove that people will suffer if we don’t use that technology. When a highway collapsed in northern California, people were killed in their cars. The highway was not built according to today’s strict standards to resist earthquakes. Individuals and governments have to be far-sighted. We should take extra time and spend extra money to build disaster safety into our lives. Although such a program can’t hold back the winds or stop earthquakes, they can save people’s lives and homes. 15. What is the purpose of the program mentioned in this passage? （） 16. What can we learn from the northern California earthquake in 1989? 17. Why did the highway in northern California collapse? Passage 3 Living at the foot of one of the world’s most active volcanoes might not appeal to you at all. But believe it or not, the area surrounding Mount Etna in Italy is packed with people. In fact, it is the most densely populated region on the whole island of Sicily. The reason is that rich volcanic soil makes the land fantastic for forming. By growing and selling a variety of crops, local people earn a good living. For them, the economic benefit they reap surpasses the risk of dying or losing property in one of the volcano’s frequent eruptions. People everywhere make decisions about risky situations this way. That is, by comparing the risks and the benefits. According to the experts, the side of the risk depends on both its probability and seriousness. Let’s take Mount Etna for example. It does erupt frequently, but those eruptions are usually minor. So the overall risk for people living nearby is relatively small. But suppose Mount Etna erupted everyday, or imagine that each eruption there kills thousands of people. If that were the case, the risk would be much larger. Indeed, the risk would be too large for many people to live with. And they would have to move away. 18. How do people make decisions about risky situations? 19. What do we know about Mount Etna from the passage? 20. What will people living near Mount Etna do in the face of its eruptions? 21. A 22. D 23. C 24. C 25. B 26. C 27. A 28. B 29. B 30. A 31. B 32. A 33. D 34. A 35. D 36. B 37. A 38. D 39. C 40. D 41. B 42. B 43. A 44. C 45. D 46. C 47. A 48. B 49. A 50. D 51. A 52. B 53. B 54. C 55. D 56. A 57. A 58. C 59. D 60. A 61. A 62. D 63. D 64. C 65. D 66. C 67. C 68. C 69. D 70. B S1. new 前加“a” S2. filling----filled S3. there------they S4. is--------in S5. was------were S6. dissimilar-----similar S7. lies-----lie S8. that-----which S9. it去掉 S10. late-----later